Event Bus & Event Store

Event Bus

The EventBus is the mechanism that dispatches events to the subscribed event handlers. Axon provides three implementations of the Event Bus: AxonServerEventStore, EmbeddedEventStore and SimpleEventBus. All three implementations support subscribing and tracking processors (see Events Processors). However, the AxonServerEventStore and EmbeddedEventStore persist events (see Event Store), which allows you to replay them at a later stage. The SimpleEventBus has a volatile storage and 'forgets' events as soon as they have been published to subscribed components.

An AxonServerEventStore event bus/store is configured by default.

Event Store

Event sourcing repositories need an event store to store and load events from aggregates. An event store offers the functionality of an event bus. Additionally, it persists published events and is able to retrieve previous events based on a given aggregate identifier.

Axon Server as an event store

Axon provides an event store out of the box, the AxonServerEventStore. It connects to the AxonIQ AxonServer Server to store and retrieve Events.

Declare dependencies:

<!--somewhere in the POM file-->

Configure your application:

// Returns a Configurer instance with default components configured. 
// `AxonServerEventStore` is configured as Event Store by default.
Configurer configurer = DefaultConfigurer.defaultConfiguration();

Embedded event store

Alternatively, Axon provides a non-axon-server option, the EmbeddedEventStore. It delegates the actual storage and retrieval of events to an EventStorageEngine.

There are multiple EventStorageEngine implementations available:


The JpaEventStorageEngine stores events in a JPA-compatible data source. The JPA event store stores events in entries. These entries contain the serialized form of an event, as well as some fields where metadata is stored for fast lookup of these entries. To use the JpaEventStorageEngine, you must have the JPA (jakarta.persistence) annotations on your classpath. The old, javax JPA (javax.persistence) annotations are also still supported. This will use an instance of the JpaEventStorageEngine using the legacyjpa namespace.

By default, the event store needs you to configure your persistence context (e.g. as defined in the META-INF/persistence.xml file) to contain the classes DomainEventEntry and SnapshotEventEntry (both of these classes are located in the org.axonframework.eventsourcing.eventstore.jpa package).

Below is an example configuration of a persistence context configuration:

<persistence xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence" version="1.0">
    <persistence-unit name="eventStore" transaction-type="RESOURCE_LOCAL"> (1)
        <class>org...eventstore.jpa.DomainEventEntry</class> (2)
  1. In this example, there is a specific persistence unit for the event store.

    You may, however, choose to add the third line to any other persistence unit configuration.

  2. This line registers the DomainEventEntry (the class used by the JpaEventStorageEngine) with the persistence context.

Unique Key Constraint Consideration

Axon uses locking to prevent two threads from accessing the same aggregate. However, if you have multiple JVMs using the same database, this won't help you. In that case, you'd have to rely on the database to detect conflicts. Concurrent access to the event store will result in a Key Constraint Violation, as the table only allows a single event for a given aggregate and sequence number. Therefore, inserting a second event for an existing aggregate with an existing sequence number will result in an error.

The JpaEventStorageEngine can detect this error and translate it to a ConcurrencyException. However, each database system reports this violation differently. If you register your DataSource with the JpaEventStorageEngine, it will try to detect the type of database and figure out which error codes represent a Key Constraint Violation. Alternatively, you may provide a PersistenceExceptionResolver instance, which can tell if a given exception represents a key constraint violation.

If no DataSource or PersistenceExceptionTranslator is provided, exceptions from the database driver are thrown as-is.

By default, the JpaEventStorageEngine requires an EntityManagerProvider implementation that returns the EntityManager instance for the EventStorageEngine to use. This also allows application managed persistence contexts to be used. It is the EntityManagerProvider's responsibility to provide a correct instance of the EntityManager.

There are a few implementations of the EntityManagerProvider available, each for different needs. The SimpleEntityManagerProvider simply returns the EntityManager instance which is given to it at construction time. This makes the implementation a simple option for container managed contexts. Alternatively, there is the ContainerManagedEntityManagerProvider, which returns the default persistence context, and is used by default by the JPA event store.

Move from javax.persistance to jakarta.persistance

Since 4.6.0 we moved to using jakarta by default. This means some classes like the JpaTokenStore are duplicated to accommodate for the javax to jakarta namespace change.

If you have a persistence unit called "myPersistenceUnit" which you wish to use in the JpaEventStorageEngine, the EntityManagerProvider implementation could look like this:

public class MyEntityManagerProvider implements EntityManagerProvider {

    private EntityManager entityManager;

    public EntityManager getEntityManager() {
        return entityManager;

    @PersistenceContext(unitName = "myPersistenceUnit")
    public void setEntityManager(EntityManager entityManager) {
        this.entityManager = entityManager;

By default, the JPA event store stores entries in DomainEventEntry and SnapshotEventEntry entities. While this will suffice in many cases, you might encounter a situation where the metadata provided by these entities is not enough. It is also possible that you might want to store events for different aggregate types in different tables.

If that is the case, you can extend the JpaEventStorageEngine. It contains a number of protected methods that you can override to tweak its behavior.


Note that persistence providers, such as Hibernate, use a first-level cache in their EntityManager implementation. Typically, this means that all entities used or returned in queries are attached to the EntityManager. They are only cleared when the surrounding transaction is committed or an explicit "clear" is performed inside the transaction. This is especially the case when the queries are executed in the context of a transaction.

To work around this issue, make sure to exclusively query for non-entity objects. You can use JPA's "SELECT new SomeClass(parameters) FROM ..." style queries to work around this issue. Alternatively, call EntityManager.flush() and EntityManager.clear() after fetching a batch of events. Failure to do so might result in OutOfMemoryExceptions when loading large streams of events.

public class AxonConfig {
    // omitting other configuration methods...
    public Configurer jpaEventStorageConfigurer(EntityManagerProvider entityManagerProvider,
                                                TransactionManager transactionManager) {
        return DefaultConfigurer.jpaConfiguration(entityManagerProvider, transactionManager);


The JDBC event storage engine uses a JDBC Connection to store events in a JDBC compatible data storage. Typically, these are relational databases. Theoretically, anything that has a JDBC driver could be used to back the JdbcEventStorageEngine.

Similar to its JPA counterpart, the JDBCEventStorageEngine stores events in entries. By default, each event is stored in a single entry, which corresponds with a row in a table. The storage engine uses one table for events and another for snapshots.

The JdbcEventStorageEngine uses a ConnectionProvider to obtain connections. Typically, the engine can obtain these connections directly from a DataSource. However, Axon will bind these connections to a UnitOfWork to use a single connection within a unit of work. This approach ensures that the framework uses a single transaction to store all events, even when multiple units of work are nested in the same thread.

public class AxonConfig {
    // omitting other configuration methods...
    public void configureJdbcEventStorage(Configurer configurer,
                                          ConnectionProvider connectionProvider,
                                          EventTableFactory eventTableFactory) {
                 config -> {
                     JdbcEventStorageEngine storageEngine =
                                                    // ...
                     // If the schema has not been constructed yet, the createSchema method can be used: 
                     return storageEngine;

SQL Statement Customizability

Databases have slight deviations from what's the optimal SQL statement to perform in differing scenarios. Since optimizing for all possibilities out there is beyond the framework's scope, you can adjust the default statements used by the storage engine.

Check the JdbcEventStorageEngineStatements utility class for the default statements used by the JdbcEventStorageEngine. Furthermore, the org.axonframework.eventsourcing.eventstore.jdbc.statements package contains the set of adjustable statements. Each of these statement-builders can be customized through the JdbcEventStorageEngine.Builder.


MongoDB is a document based NoSQL store. Its scalability characteristics make it suitable for use as an event store. Axon provides the MongoEventStorageEngine, which uses MongoDB as a backing database. It is contained in the Axon Mongo module (Maven artifactId axon-mongo).

Events are stored in two separate collections: one for the event streams and one for snapshots.

By default, the MongoEventStorageEngine stores each event in a separate document. It is, however, possible to change the StorageStrategy used. The alternative provided by Axon is the DocumentPerCommitStorageStrategy, which creates a single document for all events that have been stored in a single commit (i.e. in the same DomainEventStream).

The advantage of storing an entire commit in a single document is that commit is stored atomically. Furthermore, it requires only a single roundtrip for any number of events. The disadvantage is that it becomes harder to query events directly in the database. For example, when refactoring the domain model it is harder to "transfer" events from one aggregate to another if they are included in a "commit document".

The MongoEventStorageEngine does not require a lot of configuration. All it needs is a reference to the collections to store the events in, and you're set to go. For production environments, you may want to double check the indexes on your collections. If you want transactions to be handled correctly, it's important to set a TransactionManager. Please note that there are several other optional configuration properties, like the serializers and an (optional) upcaster chain.

public class AxonConfig {
    // omitting other configuration methods...
    public void configureMongoEventStorage(Configurer configurer, MongoTemplate mongoTemplate) {
                 config -> MongoEventStorageEngine.builder()
                                                  // ...

Event store utilities

Axon provides a number of Event Storage Engines that may be useful in certain circumstances.

In-Memory Event Storage

The InMemoryEventStorageEngine keeps stored events in memory. While it probably outperforms any other event store out there, it is not really meant for long-term production use. However, it is very useful in short-lived tools or tests that require an event store.

public class AxonConfig {
    // omitting other configuration methods...
    public void configureInMemoryEventStorage(Configurer configurer) {
        configurer.configureEmbeddedEventStore(config -> new InMemoryEventStorageEngine());

Combining multiple event stores into one

The SequenceEventStorageEngine is a wrapper around two other event storage engines. When reading, it returns the events from both event storage engines. Appended events are only appended to the second event storage engine. This is useful in cases where two different implementations of event storage are used for performance reasons, for example. The first would be a larger, but slower event store, while the second is optimized for quick reading and writing.

Filtering Stored Events

The FilteringEventStorageEngine allows events to be filtered based on a predicate. Only events that match the given predicate will be stored. Note that event processors that use the event store as a source of events may not receive these events because they are not being stored.

Influencing the serialization process

Event stores need a way to serialize the event to prepare it for storage. By default, Axon uses the XStreamSerializer, which uses XStream to serialize events into XML. XStream is reasonably fast and is more flexible than Java Serialization. Furthermore, the result of XStream serialization is human readable. This makes it quite useful for logging and debugging purposes.

The XStreamSerializer can be configured. You can define aliases it should use for certain packages, classes or even fields. Besides being a nice way to shorten potentially long names, aliases can also be used when class definitions of events change. For more information about aliases, visit the XStream website.

Alternatively, Axon also provides the JacksonSerializer, which uses Jackson to serialize events into JSON. While it produces a more compact serialized form, it does require that classes stick to the conventions (or configuration) required by Jackson.

You may also implement your own serializer, simply by creating a class that implements Serializer, and configuring the event store to use that implementation instead of the default.

// Returns a Configurer instance with default components configured. 
// We explicitly set `JacksonSerializer` as desired event serializer.
Configurer configurer = DefaultConfigurer.defaultConfiguration()
      .configureEventSerializer(c -> JacksonSerializer.builder().build());

Serializing events vs 'the rest'

It is possible to use a different serializer for the storage of events, than all other objects that Axon needs to serialize (such as commands, snapshots, sagas, etc). While the XStreamSerializer's capability to serialize virtually anything makes it a very decent default, its output is not always a form that makes it nice to share with other applications. The JacksonSerializer creates much nicer output, but requires a certain structure in the objects to serialize. This structure is typically present in events, making it a very suitable event serializer.

If no explicit eventSerializer is configured, events are serialized using the main serializer that has been configured (which defaults to the XStreamSerializer).

Distributing Events

To distribute events between applications, it is important to know whether the applications belong to the same bounded context. Applications within the same context "speak the same language." In other words, they communicate using the same set of messages and thus events.

As such, we can share the EventStore's data source between these applications. We may thus achieve distribution by utilizing the source itself. You can use both the EmbeddedEventStore and Axon Server for this. The former would require the applications to point to the same data source, whereas the latter would require the applications to partake in the same context.

However, sharing the entire event API is not recommended whenever the applications do not belong to the same context. Instead, we should protect the boundary of the contexts, except for some clearly defined cross-boundary messages. Since accessing the same source isn't an option, we require a different solution to share events.

To distribute events between bounded contexts, you can use Axon Server's multi-context solution, for example. The multi-context support requires application registration to specific contexts. Then, you can open a stream to another context through the AxonServerEventStore#createStreamableMessageSourceForContext(String) operation. With this source in hand, you can configure a Streaming Processor to start reading from it.

Alternatively, you can use a message broker to distribute events between contexts. Axon provides a couple of these as extension modules, for example Spring AMQP or Kafka.

Although this allows further event distribution, we still recommend consciously sharing the correct events. Ideally, we add a form of context mapping, like an anti-corruption layer, between the contexts. In other words, we recommend using a separate component that maps the events from the local context to a shared language right before distribution.

For example, this mapper would publish the messages on the AMQP queue or Kafka topic. When it comes to Axon Server, we could, for example, use a distinct shared/global context to contain the shared language.

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