The 'Deadline concept' in the Axon Framework is a mechanism which enables certain actions (in our case a @DeadlineHandler annotated method) to be executed after a certain amount of time. The context of this execution is an Aggregate or a Saga in which the Deadline was scheduled. If the Deadline becomes obsolete there is the possibility to cancel it as well.

Deadlines can be scheduled from Sagas and Aggregates. The DeadlineManager component is responsible for scheduling deadlines and invoking @DeadlineHandlers when the deadline is met. The DeadlineManager can be injected as a resource. It has two flavors: SimpleDeadlineManager and QuartzDeadlineManager, just like the Event Scheduling mechanism for Sagas.

Scheduling a Deadline

A deadline can be scheduled by providing a Duration after which it will be triggered (or Instance at which it will be triggered) and a name.

Note Unlike Event Scheduling, when a Deadline is triggered there will be no storing of the published Message. Scheduling/Triggering a deadline does not involve an EventBus (or EventStore), hence the Message is not stored.

String deadlineId = deadlineManager.schedule(Duration.ofMillis(500), "myDeadline");

As a result we receive a deadlineId which can be used to cancel the deadline. In most cases, storing this deadlineId as a field within your Aggregate/Saga is the most convenient. Cancelling a deadline could for example come in handy when a certain event means that the previously scheduled deadline has become obsolete (e.g. there is a deadline for paying the invoice, but the client payed the amount which means that the deadline is obsolete and can be canceled).

deadlineManager.cancelSchedule("myDeadline", deadlineId);


It is possible to cancel all deadlines of a given name by invoking deadlineManager.cancelAll("myDeadline").

If you need some contextual data about the Deadline during the Deadline Handling, you can attach a Deadline Payload when scheduling a Deadline:

String deadlineId = deadlineManager.schedule(Duration.ofMillis(500), "myDeadline", new MyDeadlinePayload(...));

Lastly, you could also provide the Deadline Identifier to the DeadlineManager instead of letting the DeadlineManager generate an identifier automatically.

Handling a Deadline

We have now seen how to schedule a Deadline. When the scheduled time is met, the corresponding @DeadlineHandler is invoked. A @DeadlineHandler is a Message Handler as any other in Axon - it is possible to inject parameters for which the ParameterResolvers exist.


When scheduling a deadline, the context from where it was scheduled is taken into account. That means a given scheduled deadline will only be triggered in its originating context. Thus any @DeadlineHandler annotated function you wish to be called on a met deadline, must be in the same Aggregate/Saga from which is was scheduled.

Axon calls this Context a Scope. If necessary, implementing and providing your own Scope will allow you to schedule Deadlines in your custom, scoped components.

A @DeadlineHandler is matched based on the Deadline Name and the Deadline Payload.

@DeadlineHandler(deadlineName = "myDeadline")
public void on(MyDeadlinePayload deadlinePayload) {
    // handle the Deadline

If the Deadline Name is not defined in the @DeadlineHandler, matching will proceed based on the Deadline Payload alone.

public void on(MyDeadlinePayload deadlinePayload) {
    // handle the Deadline

If we scheduled a Deadline without any specific payload, the @DeadlineHandler does not have to specify the payload neither.

@DeadlineHandler(deadlineName = "payloadlessDeadline")
public void on() {
    // handle the Deadline

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